Why Should I Consider Composting Animal Mortalities?

Composting livestock and poultry carcasses is becoming a more common way to manage mortalities. There are several reasons for this.

Composting is relatively inexpensive when low cost carbon materials are utilized. The high temperatures generated during composting create a very biosecure process which eliminates pathogens and reduces disease transmission when properly managed.  Composting is also an environmentally sound method for carcass disposal as it reduces odors as well as carcass leachate by surrounding the carcass with a carbon filter. The composting process creates a beneficial by-product rich in nutrients which can be land-applied as a fertilizer. Composting promotes a positive public perception by adequately disposing of animal carcasses in a sustainable manner without negatively affecting the environment.

Check out the other video FAQs on carcass management

Author: Joshua Payne, Oklahoma State University

Reviewers: Shafiqur Rahman, North Dakota State University and Jean Bonhotal, Cornell University

What Temperature Is Required To Reduce Pathogens In an Animal Mortality Compost Piles?

Research studies have been done to correlate the temperature of a compost pile containing livestock or poultry carcasses and the amount of pathogen kill achieved at those temperatures. How do you take the temperature of a compost pile? And how does that temperature correlate to pathogen reduction?

Maintaining a temperature of 131 deg F for at least 4 hours assures us that we have reached an appropriate temperature for pathogen reduction. However, to destroy most pathogen and viruses, compost pile should sustain temperature 131 ┬░F or greater for at least 3 consecutive days. The heat is the result of microbial metabolic activity within the compost pile as they are consuming the carcass.

Check out the other video FAQs on carcass management

Author: Joshua Payne, Oklahoma State University

Reviewers: Shafiqur Rahman, North Dakota State University and Jean Bonhotal, Cornell University

When Composting Animal Carcasses, Do the Bones Break Down? If Not, What Can Be Done With Them?

Most bones break down when composting animal carcasses, but a few large bones will usually remain.

With proper composting, the bones will break down over time. This may take several months for larger livestock bones and as little as 60 days for smaller carcasses such as poultry. If large bones remain in the compost pile, they can be added to additional compost piles until completely degraded.

Check out the other video FAQs on carcass management

Author: Joshua Payne, Oklahoma State University

Reviewers: Shafiqur Rahman, North Dakota State University and Jean Bonhotal, Cornell University

What are the necessary components for composting animal mortalities?

For active decomposition of animal carcasses, compost microorganisms require a source of nitrogen (N) (dead livestock or birds), carbon (C) (straw, corn stalks, shavings, litter, etc.), oxygen, water and elevated temperatures. An ideal C:N ratio should fall between 15:1 to 35:1. Oxygen (air) can be introduced when turning the compost. If proper moisture is not supplied, the organisms cannot survive. Ideally, moisture content should range from 45-55%, or wet enough when the compost is squeezed to leave your hand feeling moist, without actually forming drops of water. When all components are present in the correct ratio, the compost pile heats naturally, destroying most pathogens while microbial activity degrades the carcasses.

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Check out the other video FAQs on carcass management

Author: Joshua Payne, Oklahoma State University

Reviewers: Shafiqur Rahman, North Dakota State University and Jean Bonhotal, Cornell University