Compost not only describes the completed degradation of a mixture of materials; it also denotes the process that materials undergo before becoming compost. A workable definition for compost is that it is an organic soil conditioner that has been stabilized to a humus like product, is free of viable human and plant pathogens and plant seeds, does not attract insects or vectors, can be handled and stored without nuisance, and is beneficial to the growth of plants. A more useful explanation of the process of composting is the controlled biological process of the decomposition of organic materials into a humus rich product that can be used beneficially as a soil amendment or in erosion control techniques.
Compost is produced through the activity of aerobic microorganisms that require oxygen, moisture and food. These microorganisms generate heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide as they transform raw materials into a compost product. Effective composting begins with a basic knowledge of the material or feedstock properties, the general principles of decomposition and a method for controlling the process.
What Factors Influence Composting?
There are a few feedstock characteristics that are most influential in the composting process. These include carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio), moisture content, and the size and distribution of the feedstock particles. Raw materials blended to provide a C:N ratio between 25:1 and 30:1 is ideal for active composting, although initial C:N ratios from 20:1 to 40:1 consistently give good composting results.
When ratios fall outside this range, odor problems and longer composting times can be the result. Too little moisture, as well as too much moisture, can lead to poor composting conditions and decreased microbial activity. A moisture content ranging between 40-60% usually provides the water levels needed by microbes without saturating the required air pore space within the compost matrix . With regard to particle size distribution, a size of 90 percent cumulative passing through 2 to 3 inch openings usually is sufficient to provide a composting substrate with adequate surface area for microbial degradation and with adequate porosity for the storage of oxygen.
Methods of Manure Composting
Harnessing the natural process of decomposition to best serve a purpose within a set of specific parameters is the basis for composting systems. There are four general composting groups or methods commonly used by the composting industry:
- Aerated Manure Composting
- Composting Manure in Windrows
- In Vessel Composting of Manure
- Passive Composting of Manure
- Vermicomposting Animal Manure
Additional Information About Manure Composting
- Educational and Commercial Resources for Manure Composting
- Equipment and Software for Manure Composting
- Composting Horse Manure: Facilities and Methods
- Case Study of Herbicide Contaminated Compost (horse manure)
- Markets for Composted Agricultural Waste
Author: Jason Governo, University of Georgia