Recovery of Proteins and Phosphorus from Manure

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*Purpose

The recovery of phosphorus and proteins from manure could be advantageous to both offset costs and to improve and lessen the environmental impacts of manure storage and treatment. Phosphorous in manure can contaminate rivers, lakes, and bays through runoff, if applied onto cropland at excessive rates. Thus, recovering phosphorous from manure can not only help reduce phosphorus loss in runoff, but also reduces the use of commercial fertilizer based upon phosphate rock. Phosphorus mines have limited reserves and viable alternatives for replacing rock phosphate as fertilizer do not exist. Protein is a natural resource used in a wide range of commercial applications from pharmaceuticals to dietary supplements, foods, feeds, and industrial applications.

What Did We Do?

A new method for simultaneous extraction of proteins and phosphorus from biological materials has been developed and is presented.  The experiments used swine manure solids fraction after solids-liquid separation.  From raw manure, wet solids are dissolved in acidic solution and then treated with a basic solution so phosphorus will precipitate and be reclaimed.  The proteins in the washed solids can be extracted and concentrated with ultrafiltration and flocculation.

Test tubes filled with proteins from manure

What Have We Learned?

On a dry-weight basis, it was found that the separated manure solids contained 15.2-17.4% proteins and 3.0% phosphorus.  Quantitative extraction of phosphorus and proteins from manures was possible with this new system. The phosphorus was first separated from the solids in a soluble extract, then the proteins were separated from the solids and solubilized with an alkali solvent.  Both phosphorus and protein recovery were enhanced about 19 and 22%, respectively, with the inclusion of a rinse after the washing. The recovered phosphorus solids had 20.4% phosphates (P2O5).  The protein extract was concentrated using ultrafiltration (UF) and lyophilization to obtain a protein solids concentrate.  UF of 5 and 10 kDa captured all the proteins, but 30 kDa resulted in 22% loss.  The protein solids were converted into amino-acids using acid hydrolysis.  Further, the system was proved effective in extracting phosphorus and proteins from other biological materials, such as algae or crops. The recovered proteins could be used for production of amino acids and the recovered phosphorus could be used as a recycled material that replaces commercial phosphate fertilizers.  This could be a potential new revenue stream from wastes.

Future Plans

Further research will be conducted to reduce process costs and separate the amino acids.

Corresponding author (name, title, affiliation)

Matias Vanotti, USDA-ARS

Corresponding author email address

matias.vanotti@ars.usda.gov

Other Authors

A.A. Szogi, P.W. Brigman

Additional Information

Vanotti, M.B. and Szogi, A.A.  (2016).  Extraction of amino acids and phosphorus from biological materials. US Patent Application SN 15/350,283. U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.

USDA-ARS Office of Technology Transfer, Invention Docket No: 080.15, Contact: thomas.valco@ars.usda.gov

Acknowledgements

This research is part of USDA-ARS Project 6082-12630-001-00D “Improvement of Soil Management Practices and Manure Treatment/Handling Systems of the Southern Coastal Plains.”  We acknowledge the field and laboratory assistance of William Brigman and Chris Brown, USDA-ARS, Florence, SC.  Support by The Kaiteki Institute, Mitsubishi Chemical Holdings Group through ARS Cooperative Agreement 58-6082-5-006-F is acknowledged.

Recovery of Ammonia and Production of High-Grade Phosphates from Digester Effluents


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Purpose

Conservation and recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from animal wastes and municipal effluents are important because of economic and environmental reasons. This paper presents a novel technology for separation and recovery of ammonia and phosphorus from liquid swine manure, which has significant amount of nutrients but also contains relatively high moisture content.

What Did We Do?

Phosphorus recovery via magnesium (MgCl2) precipitation was enhanced by combining it with ammonia recovery through gas-permeable membranes and low-rate aeration. Detailed procedures used in the research are provided in Vanotti et al. (2017).

Graphic of gas-permeable membrane

What Have We Learned?

The combination of low-rate aeration and gas-permeable membrane N recovery destroyed the natural carbonate alkalinity in the wastewater and increased pH values, which accelerated ammonia uptake in the gas-permeable membrane system and improved the phosphate recovery.  The process provided 100% phosphorus recovery efficiencies.   Surprisingly, the magnesium phosphates produced contained very-high phosphate grade (46% P2O5 ) similar to commercial superphosphate fertilizer and consistent with the composition of a rare biomineral called newberyite  that is found in guano deposits.   This is an important finding because we were able to produce from wastes a valuable phosphate product with high P2O5 content favored by the fertilizer industry.

Future Plans

Research will be summarized showing consistent results obtained with municipal side-stream effluents.  Economic considerations are provided in Dube et at. (2016).

Corresponding author (name, title, affiliation) 

Matias Vanotti, USDA-ARS

Corresponding author email address  

matias.vanotti@ars.usda.gov

Other Authors 

M.B. Vanotti, P.J. Dube, A.A. Szogi, M.C. Garcia-Gonzalez

Additional Information

Dube, P. J., Vanotti, M. B., Szogi, A. A., and García-González, M. C. (2016): Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology. Waste Management 49:372–377.

Vanotti, M.B., Szogi, A.A., and Dube, P.J.  (2016): Systems and methods for recovering ammonium and phosphorus from liquid effluents. U.S. Patent Application 15/170,129. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Vanotti, M.B., Dube, P.J., Szogi, A.A., M.C. Garcia-Gonzalez (2017): Recovery of ammonia and phosphate minerals from swine wastewater using gas-permeable membranes. Water Research 112:137-146

Acknowledgements

This article is part of USDA-ARS Project 6082-12630-001-00D “Improvement of Soil Management Practices and Manure Treatment/Handling Systems of the Southern Coastal Plains.”  We acknowledge the field and laboratory assistance of William Brigman and Chris Brown, USDA-ARS, Florence, SC, and the field sampling assistance of Diana Rashash, North Carolina Extension Service/ North Carolina State University.

The authors are solely responsible for the content of these proceedings. The technical information does not necessarily reflect the official position of the sponsoring agencies or institutions represented by planning committee members, and inclusion and distribution herein does not constitute an endorsement of views expressed by the same. Printed materials included herein are not refereed publications. Citations should appear as follows. EXAMPLE: Authors. 2017. Title of presentation. Waste to Worth: Spreading Science and Solutions. Cary, NC. April 18-21, 2017. URL of this page. Accessed on: today’s date.

Extraction and Recovery of Phosphorus from Pig Manure Using the Quick Wash Process

*Why Look at Phosphorus Recovery from Pig Manure?

Land disposal of manure is a challenging environmental problem in areas with intense confined pig production. When manure is land applied at optimal nitrogen rates for crop growth, phosphorus can accumulate in excess of soil assimilative capacity because of the disproportion of nitrogen and phosphorus contents in animal manures relative to plant biomass. In turn, excess manure phosphorus lost through soil leaching or runoff has the potential to reach and pollute water resources. To reduce manure phosphorus losses into the environment, a substantial amount of phosphorus needs to be moved off the pig farm but transporting manure to phosphorus-deficit croplands becomes less cost effective with increasing distance from the pig farm. Yet, conservation and recovery of phosphorus is a concern in modern agriculture because of the high cost and possible insufficient supply of mined phosphates in the future. Thus, manure management in regions with intense animal production could benefit from new technologies that would recover manure phosphorus in a concentrated, usable form. This approach would make more economical the long distance transfers of manure phosphorus while reducing both agronomic phosphorus imbalances and adverse effects of soil P losses on water resources.

What did we do?

diagram of the quick wash processA patented treatment process, called “Quick Wash”, was developed for extraction and recovery of phosphorus from animal manure solids, but research has shown that the approach is equally effective with municipal biosolids. In the Quick Wash process, phosphorus is selectively extracted from pig manure solids by using mineral or organic acid solutions. Following, phosphorus is recovered by addition of liquid lime and an organic poly-electrolyte to the liquid extract to form a calcium-containing P precipitate. The quick wash process generates two products: 1) manure solids low in phosphorus; and 2) recovered phosphorus material.

What have we learned?

The Quick Wash process selectively extracts and recovers as much as 90 % of the phosphorus from pig manure solids while leaving most of the nitrogen in the washed manure solids. Consequently, the washed solid residue has a more balanced nitrogen and phosphorus composition for crop production and is environmentally safer for land application. The concentrated phosphorus product contains more than 90% of its phosphorus in plant available form for use as crop fertilizer. The inclusion of this process in a waste management system offers pig producers a new and welcomed opportunity to minimize phosphorus losses into the environment, while recovering and recycling phosphorus as a valuable product.

Future Plans

USDA granted an exclusive license of the invention to Renewable Nutrients, LLC (Pinehurst, NC). The Quick Wash is being commercialized by Renewable Nutrients, LLC for the municipal wastewater treatment sector and its partner TRIEA Technologies, LLC (Frederick, MD) for phosphorus recovery in the animal agriculture market.

Authors

Ariel A. Szogi, Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, Florence, SC ariel.szogi@ars.usda.gov

Matias B. Vanotti, Patrick G. Hunt – USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant

Additional information

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2018.00037/full

http://www.rnutrients.com/

http://www.trieatechnologies.com/quickwash

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., 2014. Process for removing and recovering phosphorus from animal waste. U.S. Patent 8,673,046 B1. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Acknowledgements

This work is part of USDA-ARS National Program 214: Agricultural and Industrial Byproducts; ARS Project 6657-13630-005-00D “Innovative Bioresource Management Technologies for Enhanced Environmental Quality and Value Optimization.”

The authors are solely responsible for the content of these proceedings. The technical information does not necessarily reflect the official position of the sponsoring agencies or institutions represented by planning committee members, and inclusion and distribution herein does not constitute an endorsement of views expressed by the same. Printed materials included herein are not refereed publications. Citations should appear as follows. EXAMPLE: Authors. 2015. Title of presentation. Waste to Worth: Spreading Science and Solutions. Seattle, WA. March 31-April 3, 2015. URL of this page. Accessed on: today’s date.

Process for Recovery of Phosphorus from Solid Manure

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Why Study Phosphorus Recovery?

Land application of manure in regions with intense confined livestock and poultry production is an environmental concern when land is limiting because it promotes soil phosphorus (P) surplus and potential pollution of water resources. A net accumulation of soil P results from the disproportion between lower nitrogen (N) and P ratio (N:P) in animal manure and the higher N:P ratio in harvested crops. Although manure can be moved off the farm, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the source. Thus, management alternatives to land application are needed to resolve agronomic P imbalances for more effective recycling of manure P.

Litter washed solids residue – Low P content

What Did We Do?

A treatment process, called “quick wash”, was developed for extraction and recovery of P from poultry litter and animal manure solids. In the quick wash process, P is selectively extracted from solid manure or poultry litter by using mineral or organic acid solutions. Following, P is recovered by addition of liquid lime and an organic poly-electrolyte to the liquid extract to form a calcium-containing P precipitate. The quick wash process generates two products: 1) washed solid residue, and 2) concentrated recovered P material.

What Have We Learned?

Recovered concentrated P material

The quick wash process selectively removes up to 80 % of the phosphorus from manure solids while leaving most of the nitrogen in the washed litter residue. Consequently, the washed solid residue has a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production and environmentally safe for land application. The concentrated  P recovered materials contained more than 90% of its phosphorus in plant available form. The use of recovered P can provide a recycled P source for use as crop fertilizer while minimizing manure P losses into the environment from confined animal production.

Future Plans

USDA granted an exclusive license of the invention to Renewable Nutrients, LLC (Pinehurst, NC); a centralized plant for treating poultry litter is planned to be built and operated by Renewable Nutrients in the Mid-Atlantic region.

Authors

Ariel A. Szogi, Research Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center,  Florence, SC. ariel.szogi@ars.usda.gov

Ariel A. Szogi, Matias B. Vanotti, Patrick G. Hunt – USDA-ARS Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Rsearch Center,  Florence, SC.

Additional Information

https://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2008/080229.htm

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2018.00037/full

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., Hunt, P.G., 2008. Process for removing and recovering phosphorus from animal waste. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Application Serial No. 12/026,346.

Szogi, A.A., Vanotti, M.B., and Hunt, P.G. 2008. Phosphorus recovery from poultry litter. Trans. ASABE 51(5):1727-1734.

Szogi, A.A. and Vanotti, M.B., 2009. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter. Bioresour. Technol. 100(22):5461-5465.

Szogi, A.A., Bauer, P.J., and Vanotti, M.B. Fertilizer effectiveness of phosphorus recovered from broiler litter. Agron. J. 102(2):723-727. 2010.

Acknowledgements

This work is part of USDA-ARS National Program 214: Agricultural and Industrial Byproducts; ARS Project 6657-13630-005-00D “Innovative Bioresource Management Technologies for Enhanced Environmental Quality and Value Optimization.”

The authors are solely responsible for the content of these proceedings. The technical information does not necessarily reflect the official position of the sponsoring agencies or institutions represented by planning committee members, and inclusion and distribution herein does not constitute an endorsement of views expressed by the same. Printed materials included herein are not refereed publications. Citations should appear as follows. EXAMPLE: Authors. 2013. Title of presentation. Waste to Worth: Spreading Science and Solutions. Denver, CO. April 1-5, 2013. URL of this page. Accessed on: today’s date.