Animal Agriculture In the U.S. – Trends in Production and Manure Management

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Where Are Animal Agriculture Farms Most Common?

The animal agriculture industry is widespread across the U.S. with some areas having more of certain types of farms than others. The sectors highlighted in this module include dairy, beef cattle, layer chickens (eggs), meat chickens (broilers), and pigs.

The images below shows where each of the five highlighted sectors are located in the U.S. The darker colors on each map indicate more animals in that area. These maps are based on the most recent (2012) Census of Agriculture, which is conducted every five years by the USDA National Agriculture Statistics Service.

map showing where dairy cattle are located in the US

map showing where beef cattle are located in the US

map showing where layer chickens are located in the US

map showing where broiler chickens are located in the US

map showing where pigs are located in the US

Trends In Animal Agriculture

The graphs below show data from the USDA Census of Agriculture from 1987 until the most recent one (2012).

For dairy and beef cattle, you can see clear trends showing that the number of animals is declining slightly but the number of farms is declining drastically. This means that the average farm with cattle in 2012 had many more animals than the average cattle farm in 1987. In each graph, the orange line represents the number of animals and the blue line represents the number of farms.

For pigs, the number of animals has increased slightly and the number of farms has decreased a lot. Like with cattle, this means that the average pig farm in 2012 had many more animals than the average farm in 1987. Chickens show a different trend in that the number of birds in the U.S. has increased but the number of farms has also increased.

How Much Manure Do Animals Produce?

The amount of manure animals produce varies greatly based on species; a dairy cow will produce much more manure than a chicken, for example. Two cows can excrete very different amounts of manure based on the feed they eat, their size, and age. The same is true of chickens and pigs.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that for every 1000 pounds of body weight, most common farm animals will excrete between 60 and 80 pounds of manure per day (source). Based on those numbers a 1400 pound dairy cow will excrete 112 pounds of manure and a layer hen will excrete around 1/3 of a pound of manure per day.

The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) released standard D384.2 “Manure Production and Characteristics” in 2005. Table 1 and Table 2 of that standard provide numbers that are similar to the NRCS manure production estimates. The ASABE standard estimates that a layer hen will excrete 0.19 pounds of manure per day and a dairy cow (weight not specified) will excrete 150 pounds per day.

The amount of manure an animal excretes is not necessarily the same amount that farms collect or store. For animals housed in open lots, manure dries considerably as it lays on the surface of the pen. For example, a feedlot steer may excrete 80 or 90 pounds of manure per day, but after that manure has dried on the pen surface, the farm may only end up with 8 or 9 pounds of manure to collect. The same goes for layer hen manure on manure belts or in storage structures.

For animals housed in barns with flush systems, the total volume will include animal manure, wasted feed and water, and water used for the flush system.

How Has Manure Management Changed?

In decades past, most farms handled manure as a solid* material, often mixed with bedding, and hauled the manure and bedding out to a field regularly, referred to as “daily haul”. Photos 1 and 2 (below) show what a daily haul system looks like.

small farm tractor and manure spreader

Photo 1. (Above) A spreader being loaded with manure directly from the barn.

small farm tractor and manure spreader in field

Photo 2. (Above) Spreading manure in a recently harvested field. Photos 1 and 2 are courtesy of Anne Cumbie Randle.

As farms have grown larger, and technologies improve, more manure is being handled as a slurry or liquid* — especially on dairy and pig farms. Beef cattle feedlots, and layer chicken and broiler farms mostly handle manure as a solid.

The volume of manure generated on many modern animal feeding operations necessitates storing manure in engineered structures. Manure storage has become a more visible feature on farms compared to past decades.

The primary purpose of storage systems is to provide a place to contain manure so that farmers can apply manure to fields at times when nutrients can best be utilized by crops and thereby avoid applying it to fields at inappropriate times such as when soils are frozen, snow-covered or saturated. Avoiding these times reduces the risk of runoff to water and soil compaction. Also, while not yet common, manure treatment systems that generate renewable energy or process manure for other value-added products start with storage.

* Solid manure is generally at least 20% solids and 80% or less moisture but can be stacked and piled. Liquid manure is usually 5% solids and 95% or more moisture. Slurry manure is in between. Both slurry and liquid manure are moved via pumps. (See Figure 1 on page 11 of LPES Lesson 20).

The Basics of Manure Management

The components of a manure management system include:

Collection. How much manure is produced by the animals on the farm? How will the farm gather manure for storage?

Storage. How will the manure be contained until it can be used or treated? Photos 1-3 below show some examples of manure storage.

Treatment. Not all systems are designed to include manure treatment. Treatment systems tend to be very expensive, but they can lead to new uses for manure or new revenue streams for the farm. Anaerobic or aerobic lagoons, composting, anaerobic digestion, vermicomposting, and thermal technologies are examples of manure treatment.

Transport. How will the manure be moved from the storage structure to the field or to its intended use?

Utilization. Manure has many beneficial uses. The most common use (by far) is land application as a plant fertilizer.

Recommended Resource: University of Minnesota videos on the “Basics of Manure Management

a liquid manure storage structure

Photo 1. (Above) An earthen liquid manure storage structure. Ideally, this type of manure storage would have a marker installed that indicates when the liquid level reaches the maximum design limit (a depth that provides enough capacity to store the expected volume of wastewater plus a margin of safety in case of a large rainfall or prolonged period of bad weather that prevents pumping out to a field). Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech.

solid manure storage area at a layer farm

Photo 2. (Above) A storage area for solid manure.  It is important that any runoff from this area is captured and contained. Photo courtesy of Saqib Mukhtar, University of Florida.

A cement slurry manure storage structure on a dairy farm.

Photo 3. (Above) A concrete storage structure for slurry manure on a dairy farm. The ramp in the foreground allows access to remove accumulated solids.

A Look at Five Different Types of Animal Agriculture

Click on a photo to start a short virtual tour showing the outside, inside, and basic manure handling and storage practices on layer, beef, pig, dairy, and broiler farms. These tours discuss typical manure collection intervals and practices along with typical storage facilities and management. Links to additional resources are provided throughout the text and at the end of each tour.

looking down a row of cages in a layer chicken barn

Layer hens

beef cattle in a feedlot

Beef feedlots

pigs in a confinement building

Pigs

dairy cattle eating

Dairy Cattle

broiler chicks in a barn

Broiler (meat) chickens

Recommended Resources

For the fun activity below, use the scroll bar at the right of the frame to move down and show the “continue” or “submit” buttons if they do not appear.

Next: What Does Manure Collection and Storage Look Like?

Acknowledgements

These materials were developed by the Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center (LPELC) with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and with input from the Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, National Milk Producers Federation, National Pork Board, United Egg Producers, and U.S. Poultry and Egg Association.

For questions on these materials, contact Jill Heemstra, jheemstra@unl.edu. All images in this module, unless indicated otherwise, were provided by Jill.

Reviewers: Tetra Tech, Inc.; Mark Risse, University of Georgia; Leslie Johnson, University of Nebraska; Bill Couser, Couser Cattle; Tom Hebert, Bayard Ridge Group; Glenn Carpenter, USDA NRCS; Joe Harrison, Washington State University; and Jace Thornton, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association

Spotlight on Manure Management in North Carolina and the Atlantic Coastal Plains


Proceedings Home W2W Home w2w17 logo

Purpose 

To provide information about commonly-found manure management systems and approaches in North Carolina and the Coastal Plains, and discuss opportunities for technological innovation in the areas of manure management and nutrient recovery/utilization. Hear from a diverse panel of researchers, animal agriculture producers, and agency representatives who will provide background on the environmental conditions of the region and discuss specific technical considerations for innovative research and development. Learn about what has and hasn’t worked in past attempts to recover nutrients at animal agriculture farms in the area, and about the exciting possibilities for innovation in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Nutrient Recycling Challenge (www.nutrientrecyclingchallenge.org).

What did we do? 

N/A

What have we learned? 

N/A

Future Plans 

N/A

Corresponding author, title, and affiliation 

Joseph Ziobro, Physical Scientist, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Hema Subramanian, Environmental Protection Specialist, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Corresponding author email 

ziobro.joseph@epa.gov; subramanian.hema@epa.gov

Other authors

Dr. John Classen, Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Programs, College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at North Carolina State University

Dr. Kelly Zering, Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics, North Carolina State University

Additional information

Session Agenda

  1. Background, history, and technical information about manure management in North Carolina and the Coastal Plains

Presenter: Dr. John Classen, Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Programs, College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at North Carolina State University

  1. Lessons Learned from the Smithfield Agreement

Presenter: Dr. Kelly Zering, Professor of Agricultural and Resource Economics, North Carolina State University

  1. Panel: Challenges and Opportunities around Manure Management Systems

Moderator: Hema Subramanian

Panel to include the above speakers plus representatives from the local animal agriculture industry, North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

Greenhouse Gases and Agriculture (Self Study Lesson)

This is a self-guided learning lesson about greenhouse gases (GHG) and their connections to livestock and poultry production. It is useful for self-study and for professionals wishing to submit continuing education credits to a certifying organization. Anticipated time: 60 minutes. At the bottom of the page is a quiz that can be submitted and a score of 7 out of 10 or better will earn a certificate of completion. (Teachers/educators: visit the accompanying GHG curriculum materials page)

Module Topics

  1. Why does climate change?
  2. How does US agriculture to compare to other industries and worldwide agriculture?
  3. What greenhouse gases (GHG) are emitted by livestock and poultry farms?
  4. What are mitigation and adaptation strategies

What is Climate Change?

Download and read “Why Does Climate Change?” (PDF; 8 pages). Includes basics and terminology about natural and man-made drivers of climate change.

US Agriculture Comparisons to Other Industries and Worldwide Agriculture

Watch this short video “Agriculture and Greenhouse Gases: Some Perspective” (5 minutes). This also includes some very good reasons why farmers, ranchers, and ag professionals should care about the topic of climate change, regardless of political stances on solutions.

Greenhouse Gases Emitted by Livestock, Poultry. and Other Agricultural Activities

Watch this short video discussing the most important gases produced through livestock, poultry, and cropping activities on farms and ranches. (8 minutes)

Review the following fact sheet:

Mitigation and Adaptation

Watch this short video “Carbon, Climate Change, and Controversy” by Marshall Sheperd, University of Georgia (4 minutes)

Watch this video on “Mitigation and Adaptation: Connections to Agriculture” (13 minutes)

Quiz

When you have completed the above activities, take this quiz. If you score at least 7 of 10 correct, you will receive a certificate of completion via email. If you are a member of an organization that requires continuing education units (CEUs), we recommend that you submit your certificate to them for consideration as a self-study credit (each individual organization usually has a certification board that decides which lessons are acceptable). Go to quiz….

American Registry of Professional Animal Scientist (ARPAS) members can self-report their completion of this module at the ARPAS website.

Acknowledgements

Author: Jill Heemstra, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA) is a collaborative effort of the National Young Farmers Educational Association, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Montana State University. It was funded by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) under award #2009-49400-05871. This project would not be possible without the Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Community and the National eXtension Initiative.

Weather Trends: State, Regional, and National

logo for animal agriculture climate change which includes a weather vane with cow and topWeather happens and the climate is always changing. Farmers are very in tune with these changes because weather is critical to any farming operation. What are the current weather trends in your area? Is it hotter? dryer? cooler? warmer? Is the growing season longer? Has the first frost date changed?

There is a real possibility that the weather of 30 years ago is not what we are seeing today or will see 30 years from now. The video to the right gives an overview of some of the weather trends. Related: What is the difference between weather and climate?

Use the map below to find weather trend resources in your state. Below the map are regional and national resources on weather and climate trends.

Fact sheet: Is it weather or is it climate? (Slideshare – look below preview box and title for a download link)

Educator Materials

If you would like to use the video, slides, or factsheet for educational programs, please visit the curriculum page for download links for this and other climate change topics.

Recommended Resources

To find more resources on this and related topics, visit the animalagclimatechange.org resource finder.

Global Trends

State of the Climate (NOAA)

National Weather Trends

US National Climate  Assessment (US Global Change Research Program)

Midwest Weather Data

Drought Monitor (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
US EPA Climate Change Impacts on the Midwest
US EPA Climate Change Impacts on the Great Plains

Southeast Weather Data

State of the Climate (NOAA)
Southeast Regional Climate Center-Climate Change and Health in the Southeast

Northeast Weather Data

US EPA Climate Impacts on the Northeast

Southwest Weather Data

US EPA Climate Change Impacts in the Southwest
Managing Changing Landscapes in the Southwestern United States (PDF)

Northwestern Weather Data

US EPA Climate Change Impacts on the Northwestern US
Climate of the Pacific Northwest
US Drought Monitor (Western Region: Upper Colorado River Basin)
Western Regional Climate Center
PRISM Climate Group

About the Author

Pam Knox is a climatologist at the University of Georgia Athens. She has extensive experience in climate and agriculture topics. More about Pam….

Acknowledgements

This page was developed as part of a project “Animal Agriculture and Climate Change” an extension facilitation project to increase capacity for ag professionals. It was funded by USDA-NIFA under award # 2011-67003-30206.

Reducing or Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Animal Agriculture

Animal agriculture has dramatically increased its production efficiency over time, as it continues to produce more products with fewer resources. Although its overall carbon footprint is relatively small compared to other sectors of the economy such as energy and transportation, it is often called upon to defend its impact on the environment. Recent commitments made by livestock and poultry industry groups to reduce greenhouse gas emissions shows that animal agriculture is willing to do its part as good stewards of shared natural resources and to protect the environment.

Factsheet: Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Animal Agriculture (look below the fact sheet and title for a “download” link)

Measures to mitigate or reduce greenhouse gas emissions must be weighed on a farm by farm basis, as types of animal production among species and geographic locations are extremely diverse. There is no magic bullet or one size fits all solution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions among animal agriculture.

There are four main approaches to mitigation greenhouse gas emissions in livestock and poultry systems.

(1) Production efficiency – producing more output of meat, milk and eggs per unit input (water, feed, fertilizer, etc.)

(2) Manure management – applying manure collection, storage, and disposal practices that not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but at the same time address water and air quality concerns.

(3) Energy efficiency – as we continue the trend toward more controlled environments within animal production, there is a growing need to be more energy efficient in our lighting, heating and cooling systems.

(4) Carbon capture (also called carbon sequestration) – capturing and storing carbon in the soil by maintaining cover crops, or by planting trees or other perennial vegetation increases organic matter content and also retains carbon that would have otherwise been released as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

All Species

  • Increase conception and pregnancy rate
  • Improve animal health
  • Reduce animal stress
  • Lower mortality (death) rates
  • Use feed analysis/precision feeding – match dietary requirements and nutritional needs
  • Practice genetic selection for increased production efficiency and/or reduced maintenance energy requirements

Beef Cattle

  • Increase weight gain through concentrates, improved pastures and dietary supplements
  • Increase digestibility of feed/forage
  • Encourage earlier weaning
  • Use proper stocking rates & rotational grazing
  • Move to low input production
  • Breed for better heat tolerance and pest resistance

Dairy Cattle

  • Increase milk production per head
  • Encourage earlier weaning
  • Improve energy efficiency of exhaust fans, lighting, generators, and incinerators
  • Improve cow comfort through improved cooling systems and bedding material

Swine

Also see a related project on pork production and environmental footprint.

  • Reduce crude protein content in diet and supplement with amino acids
  • Switch from dry feed to wet/dry feeders
  • Improve bedding materials
  • Improve energy efficiency of exhaust fans, lighting, and generators

Poultry

  • Use insulated curtains in houses without walls
  • Insulate walls in houses with walls
  • Install circulatory fans to prevent temperature stratification inside barns
  • Improve energy efficiency of exhaust fans, lighting, generators, and incinerators

Manure Management Strategies

  •  Anaerobic digestion captures methane (a greenhouse gas) and destroys it or utilizes it for energy generation.
  • Composting manure – can reduce greenhouse gases by avoiding methane production that would be seen if the feedstock was landfilled or stored in an open air anaerobic system (such as a lagoon)  [1]
  • Covered manure storage – can capture methane and either destroy it (flare) or utilize it for energy generation
  • Frequent removal of manure from confined facilities
  • Separating manure liquids from solid

Educator Materials

If you would like to use the video, slides, or factsheet for educational programs, please visit the curriculum page for download links for this and other climate change topics.

Recommended Reading on Reducing Emissions from Animal Production

To find more resources on this and related topics, visit the animalagclimatechange.org resource finder.

All Livestock Species

Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Opportunities for Livestock Management in the United States (Duke University Nicholas Institute, 2012)
Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Livestock Production (FAO, 2013)
Livestock’s Long Shadow, FAO report

Beef Cattle

Dietary Mitigation of Enteric Methane from Cattle (Beauchemin, K. A. et al., 2009)

Dairy Cattle

DMI Sustainability Website
Sustainability in Practice-A Collection of Success Stories from the Dairy Industry
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Dairy Sector, FAO report

Swine

Swine Carbon Footprint Facts
Evaluating the Environmental Footprint of Pork Production

Poultry

Carbon Footprint of Poultry Production Farms (C. Dunkley Webcast)
Global Warming: How Does it Relate to Poultry (C. Dunkley 2011, Factsheet)

Acknowledgements

Author: David Schmidt, University of Minnesota schmi071@umn.edu

This page was developed as part of a project “Animal Agriculture and Climate Change” an extension facilitation project to increase capacity for ag professionals. It was funded by USDA-NIFA under award # 2011-67003-30206.

References

[1] http://faculty.washington.edu/slb/docs/slb_JEQ_08.pdf

Climate Impacts on Animal Production

logo for animal agriculture climate change which includes a weather vane with cow and topThe 1941 USDA Yearbook in Agriculture was titled “Climate and Man”. All 1,214 pages in the book focus on the interdependency of agriculture and humanity with weather and climate.  Even prior to the rise in global temperture seen in the latter half of the 20th century, it was understood that extreme weather events needed to be planned for and managed.

Related: Animal agriculture and climate change

Not only are these extreme events predicted to become more common and more extreme, but a high human population is increasing demand for finite resources such as land and water.

Changes in precipitation and temperature vary by region. In general the US is seeing more precipitation and the timing and intensity of precipitation is also changing. While global temperatures are increasing, it is the variability and intensity of temperatures that are of greatest consequence to animal agriculture.

Extreme weather events are expected to affect many areas of animal production.

  • Farm Inputs: Drought and heat can devastate pastures or create hay and grain shortages which drive up prices. The same is true for wet and cool conditions. High temperature also also increases animal water consumption.  This may occur at the same time there is limited water availability  – either recharge to aquifers or runoff to streams and rivers used to water livestock.
  • Animal Production: The impact of heat and humidity on animal physiology is well documented. Extreme heat generally results in higher animal mortality, but, possibly of greater concern is the important are the economic impacts to production  such as daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency.Heat and humidity can also impact an animal’s immune system making it more susceptible to disease and stress. In addition to direct effects on animal production, heat, humidity, and moisture drive pest and disease cycles. These changes can be spatial, temporal or change the intensity of the outbreak.
  • Logistics: Many farm activities, such as moving feed to the farm, moving young stock to the farm or product off the farm, feeding and watering animals, keeping animals comfortable, moving manure to the fields, etc. depend upon weather conditions Flooding creates problems for manure management (both overtopping of manure storages and land application). Flooding can also take out roads and bridges which may impact labor supply or moving feed or animals into or out of the farm. High temperatures may impact when animals can be fed or moved. Power outages often accompany these extreme events – adding additional management challenges.
  • Farm Exports: Market pricing of produce (meat, milk, eggs) is always a challenge but is even more of a challenge with unpredictable weather. Drought or flooding will result in increased feed prices and possibly a decrease in selling price of the farm products. The economic impact will depend on the geographic range and severity of the weather event.

It is clear that there are economic impacts of heat and humidity on animal agriculture (St. Pierre, 2003) using historic weather data. Current trends in weather offer an opportunity to reassess the impacts of weather on the many aspects of the farming enterprise. Site specific farm assessments are needed to evaluate the susceptibility of the farm from changing weather trends but must include a comprehensive picture of all the impacts weather and climate at the local, regional, national and global scale.

Educator Materials

If you would like to use the video, slides, or factsheet for educational programs, please visit the curriculum page for download links for this and other climate change topics.

Recommended Resources

To find more resources on this and related topics, visit the animalagclimatechange.org resource finder.

Manure Management

Beef

Swine/Pigs

Dairy

Poultry

General – Animals and Farming

Acknowledgements

Author: David Schmidt, University of Minnesota schmi071@umn.edu

This page was developed as part of a project “Animal Agriculture and Climate Change” an extension facilitation project to increase capacity for ag professionals. It was funded by USDA-NIFA under award # 2011-67003-30206.

Playing By the Rules: Regulations and Animal Agriculture

This is a self-guided learning lesson about air and water regulations related to livestock and poultry production. Anticipated time for completion: 60 minutes. At the end is a quiz that can be submitted for a certificate of completion. Teachers/educators should check out the accompanying instructional materials.

This lesson includes 3 sections:

  1. Water quality regulations, including the Clean Water Act (CWA)
  2. Air quality regulations
  3. Record keeping and its importance to regulatory compliance

Sections 1 and 2 include resources on the relationship between federal, state, and local authorities.

1. Water Quality Regulations, Including the Clean Water Act

Watch this 20 minute video presented by Thomas Bass, Montana State University.

Recommended Reading

Federal Water Quality Regulations

2. Air Quality Regulations

Read the following publication “Air Quality Regulations in Animal Agriculture: An Introduction” (4 pages; PDF)

3. Record Keeping and Regulatory Compliance

Records protect producers and document that they are doing the right thing. Watch these four short videos that include viewpoints of regulators and farmers about the importance of records.

Why Are Animal Operations Inspected?

Why Should We Keep Records?

What Happens During an Inspection?

What Happens After an Inspection?

Recommended Reading

Record Keeping and Inspections for Animal Feeding Operations (web page)

Quiz

When you have completed the above activities, take this quiz. If you score at least 7 of 10 correct, you will receive a certificate of completion via email. If you are a member of an organization that requires continuing education units (CEUs), we recommend that you submit your certificate to them for consideration as a self-study credit. American Registry of Professional Animal Scientist (ARPAS) members can self-report their completion of this module at the ARPAS website.

Acknowledgements

Author: Thomas Bass, Montana State University tmbass@montana.edu

Building Environmental Leaders in Animal Agriculture (BELAA) is a collaborative effort of the National Young Farmers Educational Association, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and Montana State University. It was funded by the USDA National Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) under award #2009-49400-05871. This project would not be possible without the Livestock and Poultry Environmental Learning Center and the National eXtension Initiative.

Wet Scrubbers for Cleaning Air Emissions from Animal Housing Curriculum Materials

Air emissions from animal housing systems are being examined more closely for ways to mitigate potentially harmful gases. Wet scrubbers are one way to remove pollutants from air being exhausted from mechanically ventilated buildings.  The materials on this page were developed to assist educators and professors who include wet scrubbers as a topic in their classrooms or educational programs.

Fact Sheets

Roderick B. Manuzun and Lingying Zhao, The Ohio State University; Allison Jonjak, Nebraska

LPES Curriculum Lessons

Technology Summaries

Figure 1. A prototype wet scrubber developed by the Ohio State University for a deep-pit swine facility. Photo courtesy of Lingying Zhao, Ohio State.

This is from a 2008 conference hosted by Iowa State University

Acknowledgements

These materials were developed by the Air Quality Education in Animal Agriculture (AQEAA) project with with financial support from the National Research Initiative Competitive Grant 2007-55112-17856 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

For questions about the materials on this page contact Dr. Linying Zhao, Ohio State University (zhao.119@osu.edu). For questions about the AQEAA project, contact Dr. Rick Stowell, Unviersity of Nebraska (rstowell2@unl.edu).

If you have presentations, photos, video, publications, or other instructional materials that could be added to the curricula on this page, please contact Dr. Zhao or Jill Heemstra (jheemstra@unl.edu).

Planning for Climate Resiliency

Resiliency to weather risk is, on one hand, a topic that farmers and ranchers are already familiar with, but now climate change is adding new uncertainties that make it difficult to know the best practices for the future. Scenario planning, discussed in this webinar, is a method of risk assessment. This presentation was originally broadcast on January 20, 2017. More… Continue reading “Planning for Climate Resiliency”